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The Power Quality and Utilisation Guide


Introduction to Power Quality


Electrical power is perhaps the most essential raw material used by commerce and industry today. It is an unusual commodity because it is required as a continuous flow , it cannot be conveniently stored in quantity and it cannot be subject to quality assurance checks before it is used. 

(Photo Credit: Copper Development Association)




It is, in fact, the epitome of the ‘Just in Time’ philosophy in which components are delivered to a production line at the point and time of use by a trusted and approved supplier with no requirement for ‘goods in’ inspection. For ‘Just in Time’ (JIT) to be successful it is necessary to have good control of the component specification, a high confidence that the supplier can produce and deliver to specification and on time, and a knowledge of the overall product behaviour with ‘on limit’ components. 

The situation with electricity is similar; the reliability of the supply must be known and the resilience of the process to variations must be understood. In reality, of course, electricity is very different from any other product – it is generated far from the point of use, is fed to the grid together with the output of many other generators and arrives at the point of use via several transformers and many kilometres of overhead and possibly underground cabling. 

Where the industry has been privatised, these network assets will be owned, managed and maintained by a number of different organisations. Assuring the quality of delivered power at the point of use is no easy task – and there is no way that sub-standard electricity can be withdrawn from the supply chain or rejected by the customer.

The Power Quality and Utilisation Guide is a unique reference source providing not only background theory, but also a whole range of solutions from industry.

Prepared by specialist authors from industry and academia, the guide is organised into 8 sections and presented in a series of short application notes.



ContentsSection 1 Introduction


1.1     Introduction to Power Quality
1.2     Power Quality Self-assessment Guide
1.5     Power Quality in Continuous Manufacturing

Section 2 Costs

2.1     The Cost of Poor Power Quality
2.5     Investment Analysis for Power Quality Solutions
2.5     Calculation Spreadsheet

Section 3 Harmonics

3.1     Causes and Effects
3.1.1  Interharmonics
3.1.2  Capacitors in Harmonic-rich Environments
3.2.2  True RMS – The Only True Measurement
3.3.1  Passive Filters
3.3.3  Active Harmonic Conditioners
3.4.1  Understanding Compatibility Levels
3.5.1  Neutral Sizing in Harmonic Rich Installations
3.5.2  Selection and Rating of Transformers

Section 4 Resilience


4.1     Resilience, Reliability and Redundancy
4.3.1  Improving Reliability with Standby Power Supplies
4.5.1  Resilient Power Supply in a Modern Office Building
Section 5 Voltage Disturbances
5.1     Introduction
5.1.3  Introduction to Unbalance
5.1.4  Flicker
5.2.1  Predictive Maintenance – The Key to Power Quality
5.2.3  Flicker Measurement
5.3.2  Voltage Dip Mitigation
5.3.4  Choosing the Appropriate Voltage Sag Mitigation Device
5.4.2  Standard EN 50160
5.5.1  Voltage Sags in Continuous Processes – Case Study

Section 6 Earthing and EMC

6.1     A Systems Approach to Earthing
6.1.2  Fundamentals of Electromagnetic Compatibility
6.3.1  Earthing Systems – Fundamentals of Calculation
6.5.1  Earthing Systems – Basic Constructional Aspects

Section 7Under Development

Section 8 Distributed Generation and Renewables

8.1     Introduction to Distributed Generation and Renewables
8.3.1  Integration and Interconnection
8.3.2  Wind Power
8.3.5  Cogeneration
8.5.1  Wind Farm Case Study



This article was extracted from "The Power Quality and Utilisation Guide " by Copper Development Association
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